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ically. Add 500 ml of hexane to the flask, and distill
off about half of it, using a fractionating column. Both water and
methanol form azeotropes with hexane.
The approximately 250 mis of solution left in the flask is now
cooled in an ice bath to about 5° C. When that temperature is reached, . 1
mole of SOa-acetonitrile complex is added. If the solution prepared is .5-
molar strength, that requires the addition of 200 ml. This
addition should be done with strong magnetic stirring, and slowly
enough that the temperature does not climb too much. After the SOa
has been added, allow the reaction to come to completion for about 5
minutes, then add 18 grams of diethylamine (26 ml) dissolved in 250
ml of anhydrous ether.
A further 5 minutes of reaction time is then allowed with stirring,
before pouring the whole reaction mixture into a 2000 ml sep funnel.
Now 1000 ml of water is slowly poured into the sep funnel with
swirling. This addition of water generates a lot of heat as the SOs
reacts to make sulfuric acid, and then gets diluted. Over a period of
time work up to shaking the sep funnel. The LSD goes into the water
layer. Separate it off, and extract four more times with 1000 ml
portions of water.
The combined water extracts (5000 ml in all) are now saturated
with salt, then extracted five times with 1000 ml portions of ethylene
dichloride (1,2-dichloro-ethane). Ethylene dichloride is heavier than
water, so it forms the lower layer in the sep funnel.
Practical LSD Manufacture
The ethylene dichloride now contains the LSD. Check the
extracted solutions with a blacklight to make sure they have been
completely extracted. This solvent is now removed under vacuum (a
rotovap makes this much easier, but is not the sort of thing one gets at a
garage sale). Warm water can be used to heat the flask during the
The residue in the flask is a mixture of LSD and iso-LSD. The
isomeric mixture comes from using isomerically-mixed lysergic acid.
The iso-LSD is separated from the LSD using the chromatographic
method given in Chapter 4, and the iso-LSD converted to LSD by the
method also given in that chapter. Conversion to the tartarate salt is
also done in the same way as described in Chapter 4.
In this method, the formation of the metal salt of lysergic acid is
done exactly as given above. Now to the residue left in the flask after
vacuum evaporation of the methanol, add 500 ml of
dimethylformamide. Half of the dimethylformamide is now distilled
off under a vacuum through a fractionating column to remove traces of
water and methanol. Aspirator vacuum is strong enough for this
distillation, but beware of the tendency for formamides to bump
during vacuum distillations. The vacuum should be strong enough
that the dimethylformamide distills at around 50° C.
Now cool the formamide solution, and when it has cooled to 5° C,
add 100 ml of 1M SCvformamide complex. Allow 10 minutes of
Yohimbe is a tree that grows throughout the African nations of Cameroon, Gabon and Zaire. (A similar plant in South America is called Quebracho). For centuries, natives from these areas have ingested both the crude bark and purified compound as a tonic to enhance sexual prowess and as an aphrodisiac. The bark has been smoked as a hallucinogen and has been used in traditional medicine to treat angina and hypertension. The herb is a sensual stimulant for healthy men and women. Today, doctors prescribe an extract from the tree to treat organic impotence.
Yohimbe's energizing effects stem from it's ability to increase blood flow to the genitals, both male and female. It is thought to stimulate the pelvic nerve ganglia and thus is helpful for men with erection problems. In fact a prescription drug, yohimbine hydrochloride, is the only FDA approved drug for impotence. Effects can include increased libido, increased sensation and increased stamina. Women have also reported similar effects and general pleasant sensations.
Yohimbe bark contains about 6% yohimbine. This constituent is an indole alkaloid that is classified as an alpha-2-adrenergic blocking agent. The herb has a general nervous system stimulatory effect and can cause changes in blood pressure by dilating blood vessels. It can increase the heart rate, raise body temperature and increase blood pressure. At higher dosages, it has a mild psychotropic effect.
Yohimbe bark stimulates chemical reactions in the body that may aid in psychogenic cases of impotence, due to fatigue, tension and stress. Clinical studies have shown the herb to be effective in restoring potency in diabetic and heart patients who suffer from impotency. As an alpha-adrenoreceptor blocker, yohimbe reduces the effect of hormones that cause constriction of blood vessels, which typically increases as we age. It increases the body's production of norepinephrine which is essential in the formation of erections. Yohimbe may also boost the adrenaline supply to nerve endings, which can quicken male sensual stimulation. It has been used in combination with ginseng and saw palmetto as a remedy for men with low sex drive.
Yohimbe is also a short term MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor and should be used with caution, especially if you have high blood pressure. Being an MAO inhibitor, yohimbe should not be taken with any food or drink containing tyramines (cheese, chocolate, beer, aged meats, nuts, etc.) and particularly not with the amino acids tyrosine or phenylalanine. A rise in blood pressure can result from the body not being able to remove the tyramines from these foods. It may be dangerous if used with anti-depressants, sedatives, antihistamines, caffeine, or amphetamines. Yohimbe may have other side effects such as racing heart rate, irritability, headache, nausea, sweating, dizziness and frequent urination. Anyone with a heart condition, kidney disease, glaucoma or history of gastric or duodenal ulcers should avoid erature reading lesson to those who
have made these claims. See Proceedings of the Royal Society of
London, Series B, Volume 155, pages 26 to 54 (1961). Also see US
Patent 3,219,545. You will note while reading these articles detailing
how to get lysergic amide production in a culture medium that these
guys had to scour the globe to find that rare strain of claviceps fungus
that will cooperate in this manner. The vast majority of claviceps
fungi just will not produce these alkaloids while being cultured. See
the following articles to convince yourself of just how futile it is to
collect a wild strain of claviceps and try to get it to produce lysergic
acid amides in culture: Ann. Rep. Takeda Res. Lab Volume 10, page 73
(1951); and Farmco, Volume 1, page 1 (1946); also Arch. Pharm. Berl.
Volume 273, page 348 (1935); also American Journal of
Practical LSD Manufacture
Botany, Volume 18, page 50 (1931); also Journal of the American
Pharmacy Association Volume 40, page 434 (1951); also US patent
2,809,920; also Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Volume 3, page
55 (1957), and Volume 4, page 611 (1958) and Volume 6, page 355
(1960); also Journal of the American Pharmacy Society Volume 44,
page 736 (1955).
With this matter disposed of, it is time to move on to what
actually are viable sources of lysergic acid amides for the production of
LSD. This is the farming end of the acid business. It is only through
raising ergot-infested rye, or growing morning glories and Hawaiian
baby woodrose that the required feedstocks of lysergic compounds
can be obtained without making a target of oneself. I have for years
seen ads in High Times offering morning glory seeds and Hawaiian
baby woodrose seeds for sale, but these are offered in small amounts at
high prices. I would bet my bottom dollar that these outfits, if they are
not front operations, will at least report to the heat any large orders they
get. To avoid detection, the aspiring LSD manufacturer must be ready
to get his hands dirty, and spend some time as a farmer.
The most difficult farming choice, and as luck would have it, the
one that gives the purest acid, is to grow a patch of ergot-infested rye.
The reason why ergot is superior to growing morning glory seeds or
woodrose seeds is that these seeds have a considerable amount of
another type of alkaloid in them besides the ones that yield lysergic
acid. These other alkaloids are of the clavine type, meaning that they
have the lysergic-acid skeleton, but lack the carboxyl grouping. In its
place will be a methyl grouping, an alcohol grouping, a methyl
alcohol grouping or combinations of the above. These clavine
alkaloids will likely be carried all the way through into the product,
producing both the GIGO situation during the synthetic operations
and a contaminated product when finished. I will present my ideas on
how to remove them, but they are best avoided in the first place.
Ergot is the name given to a dark brow Organic legal highs that really do work
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